U.S.-Russian 123 agreement enters into force

The U.S.-Russian agreement on nuclear cooperation, known as the 123 agreement, entered into force today after the U.S. and Russian representatives exchanged diplomatic notes at a ceremony held in Moscow on January 11, 2010.

The agreement, was signed by the U.S. and Russia and was submitted to Congress with accompanying documents in May 2008. The Bush administration withdrew the agreement from Congress in September 2008, following the conflict between Russia and Georgia. The Obama administration resubmitted the agreement to Congress in May 2010. It passed Congress in December 2010.

The agreement opens the way for closer cooperation between the United States and Russia in nuclear area. In particular, it allows transfer of nuclear material, including fresh or irradiated fuel assemblies, from the United States to Russia for research and other purposes.